Recent Changes

Thursday, March 17

  1. page Introduction edited ... Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporation…
    ...
    Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporations and government alike the power to block any website, to analogous cases of literary and academic cencorship in India and abroad, and to the censorship of video games and movies. This wiki explores many different issues and examples under the wide umbrella of copyright, intellectual property, and censorship. We will discuss, in some detail, several cases that seem akin to the one surrounding Prof. Ramanujan's essay. But we will also briefly mention other instances, to reveal the core of each issue and provide links for further study.
    About Us
    ...
    the following 300ramayanasemail300ramayanas (at) gmail (dot) com email
    "So when you are listening to somebody, completely, attentively, then you are listening not only to the words, but also to the feeling of what is being conveyed, to the whole of it, not part of it."
    ~ Jiddu Krishnamurti
    (view changes)
    11:57 am
  2. page Introduction edited ... Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporation…
    ...
    Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporations and government alike the power to block any website, to analogous cases of literary and academic cencorship in India and abroad, and to the censorship of video games and movies. This wiki explores many different issues and examples under the wide umbrella of copyright, intellectual property, and censorship. We will discuss, in some detail, several cases that seem akin to the one surrounding Prof. Ramanujan's essay. But we will also briefly mention other instances, to reveal the core of each issue and provide links for further study.
    About Us
    ...
    the following 300ramayanas (at) gmail (dot) com email
    "So when you are listening to somebody, completely, attentively, then you are listening not only to the words, but also to the feeling of what is being conveyed, to the whole of it, not part of it."
    ~ Jiddu Krishnamurti
    (view changes)
    11:56 am
  3. page Introduction edited ... About the Essay A. K. Ramanujan's "Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thou…
    ...
    About the Essay
    A. K. Ramanujan's "Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation" is a scholarly essay that summarizes the actual history of the Rāmāyaṇa and its spread across India and Asia over a period of 2,500 years or more. It seeks to demonstrate factually how the Story of Rama (Ramakatha) has undergone numerous variations while being transmitted across different languages, societies, geographical regions, religions, and historical periods. The essay celebrates the extraordinary spread of the Story of Rama, and it was never intended as an iconoclastic exercise. More importantly, it does not seek to document allthe recorded tellings and re-tellings of the Rāmāyaṇa, since that would be impossible. Instead, it focuses on only five specific tellings of the Rāmāyaṇa from different languages, regions, cultures, and periods, which serve purely as indicators of a much larger range of actual variations. The subtitle of the essay points to this feature when it tells us that the analysis will focus on "Five Examples."
    ...
    Press, 1999, 2004), . An electronic text can be found on the World Wide Web with a simple Google search, using the key words in the essay's main title. The site that has posted the essay is the first website indexed in a Google search. We state, in black and white, that we have no affiliation with that website, and will not provide a link to it here.2004).
    About the Controversy
    This public controversy over the essay, which has been widely covered in India's local and national media as well as in international media during 2011, spans several years. It has become more complex with the passage of time, because the issues have spread across several academic disciplines and many areas of public concern, and have involved an increasing number of actors. Since the scale of the public controversy as a whole is very large, this wiki focuses mainly on the controversy surrounding Delhi University. Prof. Ramanujan's ­"Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas" was a required reading on the University's syllabus for history undergraduates from 2006-07 onwards. On October 9th, 2011, the Academic Council of Delhi University decided to remove the essay from the B.A. curriculum for its next academic cycle. As explained below, many people around the world viewed this as an act of unwarranted censorship.
    (view changes)
    11:54 am
  4. 11:51 am
  5. page Introduction edited ... Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporation…
    ...
    Issues of censorship stretch from the recent United States SOPA bill, which grants corporations and government alike the power to block any website, to analogous cases of literary and academic cencorship in India and abroad, and to the censorship of video games and movies. This wiki explores many different issues and examples under the wide umbrella of copyright, intellectual property, and censorship. We will discuss, in some detail, several cases that seem akin to the one surrounding Prof. Ramanujan's essay. But we will also briefly mention other instances, to reveal the core of each issue and provide links for further study.
    About Us
    ...
    the following email.email
    "So when you are listening to somebody, completely, attentively, then you are listening not only to the words, but also to the feeling of what is being conveyed, to the whole of it, not part of it."
    ~ Jiddu Krishnamurti
    (view changes)
    11:39 am

Sunday, February 26

  1. page Critique 3 edited ... It is the universality of the images found in the Rāmāyaṇa that bound many cultures together; …
    ...
    It is the universality of the images found in the Rāmāyaṇa that bound many cultures together; yet, it is the choice of these cultures to transform the images and adapt the story through their unique perspective. The community experience of a society and the events that shape a particular culture require such adaptation, and in turn, provides a literary piece, such as Ramayana, its echoing variations.
    The variations of the Rāmāyaṇa have been so wide spread that the scholar, A.K. Ramanjuan, undertook the challenge to trace the variations of the literary piece across cultures. He names his critical attempt Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas, and he aims to reconstruct a reasonable original Rāmāyaṇa that gave the rise to all of the variations. The essay examines the Rāmāyaṇa traditions in Annamese, Balinese, Bengali, Cambodian, Chinese, Gujarati, Javanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Khotanese, Laotian, Malaysian, Marathi, Oriya, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Santali, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telugu, Thai and Tibetian.
    ...
    modes of performance,performance also retained
    Overall, Ramanjuan’s attempt to capture the existing variations of the Rāmāyaṇa in cultures other than Indian, and providing the audience with brief remarks on each piece place the essay Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas and its author at a rather significant place. Whether the essay lends itself to subjectivity while deconstructing the variations immaterial, as any piece written by a human being will have its limitations and display traces of personal perceptions. A good approach to this essay is to read it as an intellectual attempt to draw a road map that has explored the voyages of the Rāmāyaṇa.
    (view changes)
    12:38 pm
  2. page Critique 3 edited ... The variations of the Rāmāyaṇa have been so wide spread that the scholar, A.K. Ramanjuan, unde…
    ...
    The variations of the Rāmāyaṇa have been so wide spread that the scholar, A.K. Ramanjuan, undertook the challenge to trace the variations of the literary piece across cultures. He names his critical attempt Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas, and he aims to reconstruct a reasonable original Rāmāyaṇa that gave the rise to all of the variations. The essay examines the Rāmāyaṇa traditions in Annamese, Balinese, Bengali, Cambodian, Chinese, Gujarati, Javanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Khotanese, Laotian, Malaysian, Marathi, Oriya, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Santali, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telugu, Thai and Tibetian.
    Ramanjuan shows that each culture hosting the epic in different formats and modes of performance, also retained the epic in oral form the sets of themes unknown to Vālmīki. While providing the audience with the varying tellings of the epic, and showing how each culture has internalized the Rāmāyaṇa by adding their own cultural, religious, and linguistic elements into it, Ramanjuan draws a clear picture of the power of the epic that was once originated in India.
    ...
    that has chartedexplored the voyages
    (view changes)
    12:33 pm
  3. page Critique 3 edited ... A.K. Ramanjuan’s 300 Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas ... world, epics that date back ... of th…
    ...
    A.K. Ramanjuan’s 300Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas
    ...
    world, epics that date back
    ...
    of the people;people, therefore, they
    ...
    from a folkloristicfolkloric perspective, and
    ...
    on A.K. Ramanjuan’sRamanujan's essay 300Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas.
    ...
    unique perspective, Rāmāyaṇaplacedthe Rāmāyaṇa placed itself as
    ...
    well-defined authorship, the Rāmāyaṇa managed
    ...
    images and messagemessages pass beyond
    ...
    is quite diverse.diverse and immense.
    Rāmāyaṇa’s spread
    ...
    their deep emotion,emotion and aesthetic
    It is the essence of the Rāmāyaṇa that captures a piece of life. It is this greatness found in the composition of the Rāmāyaṇa, which seems to remain and find itself new contexts in which to flourish. The great variety of India’s images in the world derives from the same underlying deep structure on which the images shared across many cultures all around the world. These deep surface structure elements seen in Vālmīki’s Rāmāyaṇa are universal; they represent the dynamics of these deep structures in the choice of the author and articulation of images.
    It is the universality of the images found in the Rāmāyaṇa that bound many cultures together; yet, it is the choice of these cultures to transform the images and adapt the story through their unique perspective. The community experience of a society and the events that shape a particular culture require such adaptation, and in turn, provides a literary piece, such as Ramayana, its echoing variations.
    ...
    spread that athe scholar, A.K. Ramanjuan has undertakenRamanjuan, undertook the challenge
    ...
    in different formats,formats and modes of performanceperformance, also retained itthe epic in oral form the sets of
    ...
    elements into itit, Ramanjuan draws
    ...
    that has been explored forcharted the voyages
    (view changes)
    12:29 pm
  4. 12:02 pm
  5. page Critique 3 edited . Voyages of Rāmāyaṇa: A Reflective Essay on A.K. Ramanjuan’s 300 Hundred Rāmāyaṇas _GoBackDue …
    .Voyages of Rāmāyaṇa: A Reflective Essay on A.K. Ramanjuan’s 300 Hundred Rāmāyaṇas
    _GoBackDue to its abundance of influential epics and its long history of oral traditions, India can be considered the “motherland of epics”. In many cultures around the world, epics that date back to the ancient times in the history derive from oral traditions and are products of the collective knowledge of the people; therefore, they are not attributed to one particular author. One of the great epics of India, Rāmāyaṇa, however, is closely affiliated with its author Vālmīki. In this brief essay, it is my aim to look at the epic Rāmāyaṇa and its variations in other cultures from a folkloristic perspective, and reflect on A.K. Ramanjuan’s essay 300 Hundred Rāmāyaṇas.
    Regardless of whether Vālmīki retained much of the epic in its earlier form or re-shaped it with his unique perspective, Rāmāyaṇaplaced itself as one of the major folkloric sources in Indian culture. Despite this regional affiliation and well-defined authorship, Rāmāyaṇa managed to travel across regions and penetrated into the layers of the cultures of many other societies. Literature, as clearly seen in Rāmāyaṇa’s journey across cultures, is not defined by or subject to the boundaries of geographical borders. Its images and message pass beyond the pre-defined limits, and channel into the lives of people. Development and change that lead to multiple variations for this epic prove that the textual universe of the Rāmāyaṇa is quite diverse.
    Rāmāyaṇa’s spread to numerous other cultures and languages during the past two millennia verify that it has provided many cultures with a story wherein people found a sophisticated expression of their deep emotion, and aesthetic needs. “Our primaeval poem, our adi-kavya, the Rāmāyaṇa welled forth at the grievous sight of the death of a love-lorn avian couple shot by a hunter. A new metrical measure surged forth in all spontaneity from the anguish and agony of the bird falling dead. The ephemeral shoka of Vālmīki became the perennial shloka of Indian literature. Primal pain was a perennial poem. The leaves, the bird, the air, the falling, the forlorn forest had opened up inside the whole being of a nation. Ever since Rāmāyaṇa has become the lyric of men of Asia from the Urals to Indonesia” (Chandra, 19).
    It is the essence of the Rāmāyaṇa that captures a piece of life. It is this greatness found in the composition of the Rāmāyaṇa, which seems to remain and find itself new contexts in which to flourish. The great variety of India’s images in the world derives from the same underlying deep structure on which the images shared across many cultures all around the world. These deep surface structure elements seen in Vālmīki’s Rāmāyaṇa are universal; they represent the dynamics of these deep structures in the choice of the author and articulation of images.
    It is the universality of the images found in the Rāmāyaṇa that bound many cultures together; yet, it is the choice of these cultures to transform the images and adapt the story through their unique perspective. The community experience of a society and the events that shape a particular culture require such adaptation, and in turn, provides a literary piece, such as Ramayana, its echoing variations.
    The variations of the Rāmāyaṇa have been so wide spread that a scholar, A.K. Ramanjuan has undertaken the challenge to trace the variations of the literary piece across cultures. He names his critical attempt Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas, and he aims to reconstruct a reasonable original Rāmāyaṇa that gave the rise to all of the variations. The essay examines the Rāmāyaṇa traditions in Annamese, Balinese, Bengali, Cambodian, Chinese, Gujarati, Javanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Khotanese, Laotian, Malaysian, Marathi, Oriya, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Santali, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telugu, Thai and Tibetian.
    Ramanjuan shows that each culture hosting the epic in different formats, modes of performance also retained it in oral form sets of themes unknown to Vālmīki. While providing the audience with the varying tellings of the epic, and showing how each culture has internalized the Rāmāyaṇa by adding their own cultural, religious, and linguistic elements into it Ramanjuan draws a clear picture of the power of the epic that was once originated in India.
    Overall, Ramanjuan’s attempt to capture the existing variations of the Rāmāyaṇa in cultures other than Indian, and providing the audience with brief remarks on each piece place the essay Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas and its author at a rather significant place. Whether the essay lends itself to subjectivity while deconstructing the variations immaterial, as any piece written by a human being will have its limitations and display traces of personal perceptions. A good approach to this essay is to read it as an intellectual attempt to draw a road map that has been explored for the voyages of the Rāmāyaṇa.

    (view changes)
    12:00 pm

More